Safety Management Systems (SMS) Training

Your location or Virtual

TACG provides holistic, or a la carte, solutions for your company's SMS needs and/or requirements. Our solutions have been developed in accordance with ICAO Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs). We know how SMS works from both the State Regulator (we assist CAAs with State Safety Program [SSP] implementation) as well as the Operator sides! TACG can provide the following non-exhaustive services to help you achieve your Phase 4, MODEL SMS:


SMS Courses


SMS Implementation Packages


SMS/Safety Culture/HRO Consulting


  • Safety Culture/High-Reliability Organization (HRO) Consulting (scroll down for details)

Virtual Safety Office



TACG is proud to partner with SMS Pro®!


A brief introduction to the Four Pillars of Safety Management with live narration by TACG President Dr. Bob Baron.



SMS Solutions For All Types Of Operators

TACG provides SMS training, consulting, implementation, and objective audits (Gap Analyses) for all types of aviation organizations, including-


  • Airlines
  • Business Aviation/Charter Operators
  • Helicopter Operators
  • Airports
  • Ground Service Providers (GSPs)
  • Fixed Base Operators (FBOs)
  • Flight Schools
  • Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul Facilities (MROs)
  • Civil Aviation Authorities / State Aviation Regulators
  • Accident Investigation Agencies

Experience Counts!

TACG has extensive experience in SMS. We did not just jump on the bandwagon! In fact, we've been doing SMS since 2006, long before SMS became a global aviation buzzword. Today, it seems like everybody is (or wants to be) an SMS expert. Sadly, this has led to poor guidance, and ultimately, much frustration for organizations attempting to implement a functional SMS.



TACG president Dr. Bob Baron has developed a foundation of academic and practical experience that has been time tested. He has a Ph.D in Industrial and Organizational Psychology (the things safety culture and SMS are built on), has conducted dissertation research on safety climate at an aircraft maintenance facility, and works globally (in the trenches) as an aviation safety consultant, implementing SMS and acting as a cultural change agent in some of the most challenging parts of the world.




Safety Culture and High Reliability Organization (HRO) Consulting


Meet Your Consultant

Dr. Bob Baron
TACG President/Chief Consultant
Full bio

Dr. Baron is available for aviation and all high-risk industries, including-

  • Aerospace/Sub-Orbital/Space Operations
  • Nuclear
  • Health Care
  • Chemical
  • Maritime
  • Rail


TACG President and Chief Consultant Dr. Bob Baron has been involved in aviation since 1988, with extensive experience as a pilot, educator, and aviation safety advocate. Unlike some other "safety consultants," Dr. Baron has the time-tested qualifications and experience to assist aviation organizations on a global basis. This includes a Ph.D degree in Industrial and Organizational Psychology (the things safety culture and SMS are built on), as well as degrees in Aeronautical Science (Specializations in Human Factors and Aviation/Aerospace Safety Systems) and Professional Aeronautics (Minor in Aviation/Aerospace Safety).

As an Organizational Psychologist with extensive, practical experience in aviation, you can rest assured that you are making the right choice when selecting an organizational/change management consultant who can make demonstrable and measurable changes in your organization's safety culture.

It is important to understand that making paradigmatic culture changes can be very difficult, if not impossible, to do internally. The use of an external, objective, unbiased consultant is critical in the measurement and guidance needed to make demonstrable changes in an organization's safety culture.




Safety Culture

"Safety culture can be defined as the enduring value and priority placed on worker and public safety by everyone in every group at every level of an organization. It refers to the extent to which individuals and groups will commit to personal responsibility for safety; act to preserve, enhance, and communicate safety concerns; strive to actively learn, adapt, and modify (both individual and organizational) behavior based on lessons learned from mistakes; and be rewarded in a manner consistent with these values" (Zhang, Wiegmann, von Thaden, Gunjan, & Mitchell).



Just Culture

"A Just Culture promotes an atmosphere of trust in which people are encouraged (even rewarded) for providing essential safety-related information, but where a distinction is made between acceptable and unacceptable behavior. A Just Culture is a way of safety thinking that promotes a questioning attitude, is resistant to complacency, is committed to excellence, and fosters both personal accountability and corporate self-regulation in safety matters" (Reason).  

A Just Culture promotes safety by acknowledging "to err is human." Errors will always occur. However, some errors should not be addressed by retribution, when in fact the system itself might be flawed. However, a clear line must be drawn which differentiates between what is common everyday human error versus flagrant or willful violations that could, and should, be dealt with in a punitive manner.




High-Reliability Organization

"HRO describes a subset of hazardous organizations that enjoy a high level of safety over long periods of time. What distinguishes types of high-risk systems is the source of risk, whether it is the technical or social factors that the system must control, or whether the environment, itself, constantly changes. This latter can be controversial to observers as environments change within a range of expected extremes. It is the surprise of the change, its unexpected presentation that influences the level of reliability. The coupling between technology and people creates the socio-technical system" (Weick & Sutcliffe).

Four organizational characteristics of the HRO limit accidents or failures:

  • Prioritization of both safety and performance, and shared goals across the organization
  • A “culture” of reliability (or, better, attitude toward reliability) that simultaneously decentralizes and centralizes operations allowing authority decisions to migrate toward lower ranking members
  • A learning organization that uses “trial-and-error” learning to change for the better following accidents, incidents, and, most importantly, near misses
  • A strategy of redundancy beyond technology, but in behaviors such as one person stepping in when a task needs completion

An HRO is an organization that has succeeded in avoiding catastrophes in an environment where normal accidents can be expected due to risk factors and complexity.

There are Five Characteristics of an HRO:

  • Preoccupation with failure
  • Reluctance to simplify interpretations
  • Sensitivity to operations
  • Commitment to resilience
  • Deference to expertise




Contact us for more information